Crime in the United States, 2000
|Washington, D.C. October 23, 2001|
The Federal Bureau of Investigation announced today that there was virtually no change in the crime index in 2000 compared to the 1999 figures. The crime index (composed of murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) decreased 0.2 percent in 2000, the smallest year-to-year decrease in volume since 1991. Final 2000 data released by the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program in the annual publication Crime in the United States, 2000, show that serious crime was 14.0 percent lower than in 1996 and 22.0 percent less than in 1991.
Both violent and property crime experienced marginal declines in volume when compared to the 1999 volume.
Collectively, violent crime (murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) decreased 0.1 percent from 1999 to 2000. Decreases in violent crime occurred for robbery, 0.4 percent, and for aggravated assault, 0.1 percent. Murder declined by less than one-tenth of 1 percent. Forcible rape increased 0.9 percent, the first volume increase for that offense since 1992.
Overall, property crime in 2000 (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) decreased 0.3 percent when compared to the 1999 data. Increases in larceny-theft, 0.2 percent, and motor vehicle theft, 1.2 percent, were offset by a 2.4-percent decline in volume for burglary.
By community type, index crime decreased 1.8 percent in the nation’s suburban counties and 0.1 percent in the nation’s cities collectively. Rural counties experienced a 0.5-percent increase in Index crime, which can be attributed to increases in robbery, larceny-thefts, and motor vehicle thefts from 1999 to 2000.
An estimated 11.6 million offenses were reported to law enforcement agencies across the nation in 2000, an average of 4,124.0 crimes for every 100,000 inhabitants. This rate is 3.3 percent less than the 1999 rate, 18.9 percent less than the 1996 rate, and 30.1 percent less than the crime rate recorded in 1991.
Crime in the United States, 2000 is compiled from data provided to the FBI’s UCR Program by approximately 17,000 law enforcement agencies representing nearly 254 million United States inhabitants, 94 percent of the nation’s population as established by the Bureau of the Census. Estimates are included for nonreporting areas.
- The crime index total, the measure of serious crime volume, decreased 0.2 percent from reported 1999 data.
- From 1999 to 2000, violent crime declined 0.1 percent. The following decreases in volume were recorded: robbery, 0.4 percent; aggravated assault, 0.1 percent; and murder, less than one-tenth of 1 percent. Forcible rape, which had been in decline since 1992, increased 0.9 percent. Among the nation’s counties, forcible rape volumes decreased 0.9 percent in suburban counties and 0.1 percent in rural counties from 1999 to 2000; however, during this two-year period, the nation’s cities collectively experienced a 1.5-percent increase in volume for forcible rape.
- Three of the nation’s four geographic regions experienced decreases in estimated crime volumes. With 35.6 percent of the country’s population, the Southern region accounted for 41.0 percent of the estimated crime for 2000. Crime in the South declined 0.1 percent from 1999 to 2000. The Midwestern region, with 22.9 percent of the U.S. population and 21.9 percent of the nation’s estimated crime, had a decline of 0.6 percent in Index crime. The Northeastern region, comprising 19.0 percent of the country’s population and 14.2 percent of the country’s crime, experienced a 2.0-percent decline in Index crime. The Western region, which makes up 22.5 percent of the nation’s population, accounted for 23.0 percent of the total estimated crime and had the only regional increase in the number of offenses, 1.0 percent. Collectively, the states which make up the Western region experienced increases in crime volume for motor vehicle theft, 7.1 percent; forcible rape, 3.5 percent; robbery and aggravated assault, both increasing 0.9 percent; and larceny-theft, which increased 0.2 percent in volume.
Crime Index Rate
- The 2000 crime index rate, which measures the average number of the seven index offenses per 100,000 inhabitants in the United States, decreased 3.3 percent from the 1999 rate. The crime index rate for 2000 was 4,124.0 Index offenses per 100,000 population, 18.9 percent lower than in 1996 and 30.1 percent less than in 1991.
- In 2000, the nation’s cities collectively had a crime rate of 5,071.0 index offenses for every 100,000 inhabitants. The country’s largest cities, those with populations of 250,000 or more inhabitants, were measured at 6,382.1 Crime index offenses per 100,000 population. The nation’s smallest cities, those having populations of less than 25,000 inhabitants, collectively experienced a crime index rate of 3,923.1 Index offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2000, suburban counties had a rate of 3,043.7 Index offenses per 100,000 population and rural counties, a rate of 1,928.1.
- By region, the Southern states had a crime index rate of 4,743.4 index offenses per 100,000 population for 2000, a decrease of 3.9 percent from the 1999 rate. The Western states recorded 4,222.4 index crimes per 100,000 inhabitants, a decline of 2.3 percent from the previous year’s rate. The Midwestern states experienced a crime index rate of 3,945.0 Index offenses per 100,000 inhabitants, down 2.4 percent from the 1999 rate. The Northeastern states, with a rate of 3,064.3 Index offenses per 100,000 population, showed a 5.2-percent decrease from 1999 to 2000.
- The year 2000 marked the lowest volume of violent crimes (murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault) since 1985. Violent crime decreased 0.1 percent from the 1999 volume. The estimated 1.4 million violent crimes in 2000 were also down 15.6 percent from the 1996 estimate and 25.5 percent from the 1991 estimate.
- The violent crime rate for 2000 was computed at 506.1 offenses for every 100,000 in population. The 2000 violent crime rate decreased 3.2 percent from the 1999 rate, 20.5 percent from the 1996 rate, and 33.2 percent from the 1991 rate.
- Aggravated assault accounted for 63.9 percent of the total violent crimes in 2000. Robbery made up 28.6 percent of the total violent crime, forcible rape comprised 6.3 percent, and murder 1.1 percent.
- The robbery volume in 2000 declined 0.4 percent from the 1999 volume. And when compared to the 1999 volume, the volume of aggravated assaults decreased by 0.1 percent in 2000. The murder volume between 1999 and 2000 showed virtually no change, decreasing by less than one-tenth of 1 percent. Forcible rape was the only violent crime that had an increase in volume over the two-year period, showing a 0.9-percent rise.
- Firearms were used in 25.6 percent of the total murders, robberies, and aggravated assaults collectively during 2000. Personal weapons (hands, fists, feet, etc.) were involved in 31.5 percent of these crimes, and knives or cutting instruments were employed in another 15.0 percent. Other dangerous weapons were used in 27.9 percent of the offenses.
- Property crimes (burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft) were collectively estimated at 10.2 million offenses for 2000, a decrease of 0.3 percent from the 1999 estimate. The 2000 property crime offense total was 13.8 percent less than in 1996 and 21.4 percent lower than in 1991.
- In 2000, the estimated number of motor vehicle theft offenses and larceny-theft offenses increased 1.2 and 0.2 percent, respectively. These volume increases for motor vehicle theft and larceny-theft were offset by a 2.4 percent decline in the number of burglaries reported to law enforcement for 2000 and allowed for a cumulative decrease of 0.3 percent for property crimes in 2000.
- The nation’s property crime rate for 2000 was 3,617.9 offenses for every 100,000 inhabitants. The property crime rate was 3.4 percent less than the 1999 rate, 18.7 percent below the 1996 rate, and 29.6 percent less than the 1991 rate.
- Total dollar losses for property crime are estimated to be more than $15.9 billion. The average dollar loss connected with property crime offenses was $1,562.
- Limited arson data showed an average of $11,042 in property losses per incident reported.
- There were a total of 8,152 hate crime incidents reported to law enforcement in 2000. These incidents involved 9,524 distinct offenses.
- Among the 8,144 single-bias incidents in 2000, racially motivated bias made up the largest number of offenses reported, 5,206. Religious bias was the motivation for 1,568 of the single-bias offenses. Offenses committed with a bias against a sexual orientation accounted for 1,517 offenses, bias against ethnicity or national origin led to 1,180 offenses, and disability was the bias motivation for 36 offenses. There were an additional 17 offenses that occurred during eight incidents involving multiple biases.
- In 2000, for the 8,152 bias incidents reported, the identity of 7,642 offenders are known.
- The most common hate crime offense in 2000 was intimidation, with 3,294 bias-motivated offenses. The destruction/damage/vandalism of property accounted for 2,766 offenses; simple assault, 1,616 offenses; and aggravated assault, 1,274 offenses.
- Hate crime data for 2000 was provided by 11,691 law enforcement agencies representing nearly 237 million or 84.2 percent of the nation’s population.
Index Crime Clearances
- Law enforcement agencies nationwide reported a 20.5-percent crime index offense clearance rate for 2000. The clearance rate for violent crimes was 47.5 percent; property crimes had a clearance rate of 16.7 percent.
- Among violent crimes, the offense of murder had a clearance rate of 63.1 percent and was the most frequently cleared offense in 2000. The aggravated assault clearance rate was 56.9 percent; 46.9 percent of forcible rapes and 25.7 percent of robberies were also cleared.
- For property crimes, 18.2 percent of larceny-thefts were cleared in 2000. Motor vehicle theft was cleared at a rate of 14.1 percent; burglary, the offense least often cleared, had a clearance rate of 13.4 percent.
- Arson had a clearance rate of 16.0 percent in 2000.
- In 2000, Index offenses involving only juvenile offenders (under 18 years of age) accounted for 19.3 percent of the overall Crime Index offenses cleared. Additionally, juveniles were held accountable for 12.2 percent of all violent crimes cleared and 22.1 percent of the total property crimes cleared. Murder had the least juvenile involvement with 5.3 percent of the offenses cleared. Juveniles, however, were most often involved in the crime of arson, representing 45.9 percent of the total arson offenses cleared.
- In 2000, law enforcement agencies made an estimated 14 million arrests for all criminal infractions (excluding traffic violations). Drug abuse violations, with an estimated 1.6 million arrests, were the most frequent cause for arrest, continuing a six-year trend. Among specific crime classifications, some of the highest arrest counts in 2000 were for driving under the influence, accounting for an estimated 1.5 million arrests; simple assaults, 1.3 million arrests; and larceny-thefts, 1.2 million arrests.
- Relating the number of arrests in 2000 to the nation’s population, there were 5,010.4 arrests for every 100,000 inhabitants. Collectively, the country’s cities had a rate of 5,418.1 arrests for every 100,000 city inhabitants. Cities with populations of under 10,000 inhabitants had the highest arrest rate, 6,460.1 per 100,000 population. The arrest rate for rural county law enforcement agencies was 4,027.1 and for suburban county law enforcement, 4,021.5 arrests per 100,000 county inhabitants.
- The number of total arrests for the nation decreased 2.2 percent from 1999 to 2000. Arrests for the crime index offenses declined 3.7 percent as violent crime arrests decreased 1.4 percent and property crime arrests decreased 4.6 percent.
- Total juvenile arrests declined 4.8 percent from 1999 to 2000, and adult arrests fell by 1.7 percent. For the crime index offenses, juvenile arrests decreased by 5.1 percent. The number of adult arrests for Index crimes was also down, showing a 3.1-percent decrease. Juvenile arrests for violent and property crimes declined 4.4 and 5.3 percent, respectively. Adult arrests also showed a downward trend, declining 0.8 percent for violent crimes and 4.2 percent for property crimes.
- Among persons arrested for index offenses in 2000, 55.1 percent were under the age of 25. This age group accounted for 44.4 percent of the violent crime arrests and 59.2 percent of the property crime arrests. Juveniles made up 27.5 percent of those arrested for index crime, 15.9 percent of those arrested for violent crime, and 32.0 percent of those arrested for property crime.
- Males comprised 77.8 percent of the total arrestees in 2000. Males also accounted for 82.6 percent of the violent crime arrestees and 70.1 percent of property crime arrestees.
- In 2000, whites accounted for 69.7 percent of the total arrestees, 59.9 percent of the violent crime arrestees, and 66.2 percent of the property crime arrestees.
- There were an estimated 15,517 murders in 2000, virtually no change from the 1999 murder estimate of 15,522. The number of murders was 21 percent less than in 1996 and 37.2 percent less than in 1991.
- Murder trends for the nation’s cities collectively indicated murder increased by 0.7 percent from 1999 to 2000. Murder declined 3.8 percent in the suburban counties and 3.5 percent in rural counties.
- Based on supplemental murder data provided for 12,943 of the estimated 15,517 murders in 2000, males comprised 76.2 percent of the murder victims. By race, 49.0 percent of the victims were white, 48.5 percent were black, and other races accounted for 2.5 percent of the victims. Adults, persons aged 18 or older, made up 89.7 percent of the murder victims.
- Supplemental data for 14,697 murder offenders indicate that 90.2 percent of the offenders were male and 91.3 percent of the murder offenders were aged 18 or older. By race, 51.4 percent were black, 46.1 percent were white, and 2.6 percent of the offenders were of other races.
- Data continue to indicate that murder is most often intraracial. In 2000, 93.7 percent of black murder victims were slain by black offenders and 86.2 percent of white murder victims were slain by white offenders.
- In 2000, relationship data between victims and their offenders indicated that 44.3 percent of the victims were acquainted with or related to their assailants. Familial relationships existed between 13.4 percent of the victims and their murderers; acquaintances murdered 30.9 percent of the victims.
- Husbands or boyfriends murdered 33.0 percent of the female victims, and wives or girlfriends killed 3.2 percent of male victims during 2000.
- During 2000, arguments were the predominant circumstance leading to murder. According to supplemental data, 29.4 percent of murders resulted from an argument. Felonious activities such as forcible rape, robbery, arson, etc., precipitated 16.7 percent of the murders, and 0.5 percent of the murders were suspected of having felonious intent.
- Firearms were used in 65.6 percent of the murders in 2000. By firearm type, handguns accounted for 51.7 percent of the murder total; shotguns, 3.6 percent; rifles, 3.1 percent; and other or unknown types of firearms another 7.3 percent.
- An estimated 90,186 forcible rapes of females were reported by law enforcement agencies during 2000, an increase of 0.9 percent from the 1999 rate, and the first increase for female forcible rape since 1992. By volume, forcible rape in 2000 was 6.3 percent less than in 1996 and 15.4 percent lower than in 1991.
- Collectively, the nation’s cities experienced a 1.5 percent increase in forcible rape volumes; suburban counties had a decrease of 0.9 percent, and rural counties a 0.1 percent decrease.
- In 2000, an estimated 62.7 of every 100,000 females in the country were victims of forcible rape. By community type, cities outside of metropolitan areas had the highest rate of female forcible rape, 69.0 for every 100,000 females. Metropolitan statistical areas had a rate of 65.0 female rapes per 100,000 females, and rural counties recorded a rate of 43.4 forcible rapes for every 100,000 females.
- Law enforcement cleared 46.9 percent of reported female forcible rapes during 2000. Juveniles were involved in 12.1 percent of the total law enforcement clearances for forcible rape nationwide.
- The estimated number of robberies decreased 0.4 percent from 1999 to 2000. Additionally, robbery offenses declined 23.9 percent from the 1996 estimate and 40.7 percent from the 1991 estimate.
- In 2000, the monetary value attributed to property stolen during robbery was estimated at over $477 million. The average dollar loss per robbery offense was $1,170.
- Robberies on streets and highways comprised 46.0 percent of all robberies. Robberies of financial establishments and commercial businesses accounted for 25.3 percent of robberies, and residential robberies made up 12.2 percent of all robberies.
- Firearms were used in 40.9 percent of robberies during 2000. Strong-arm tactics were used in 40.4 percent of robberies, knives or cutting instruments were the weapon used in 8.4 percent of robberies, and other types of weapons were used in 10.3 percent of robberies.
- The estimated 910,744 aggravated assault offenses in 2000 represented a slight decline, 0.1 percent, from the 1999 figure. This is the lowest estimated volume since 1989. The estimated number of aggravated assaults was 12.2 percent lower than the 1996 figure and 16.7 percent lower than the 1991 number.
- By community type, the number of aggravated assaults declined 3.7 percent in rural counties and increased 0.2 percent in the nation’s cities collectively and 0.2 percent in suburban counties.
- Aggravated assault accounted for 63.9 percent of the violent crimes in 2000.
- Nationally, there was an average offense rate of 323.6 aggravated assaults for every 100,000 inhabitants during 2000, a decrease of 3.2 percent from the 1999 rate. The country’s cities, collectively, had a rate of 395.2 per 100,000 inhabitants, suburban counties averaged 262.1 aggravated assaults per 100,000, and rural counties, a rate of 171.1 offenses per 100,000 populace.
- In 2000, 35.9 percent of aggravated assaults were committed with blunt objects or other dangerous weapons. Personal weapons (hands, fists, feet, etc.) were used in 28.0 percent of the assaults; firearms, in 18.1 percent; and knives or cutting instruments, in 18.0 percent.
- The estimated number of burglary offenses in 2000 declined 2.4 percent from the previous year’s figure. The estimated 2,049,946 offenses are the lowest measure since 1969. National five- and 10-year trends indicated that burglary declined 18.2 percent from the 1996 figure and decreased 35.1 percent from the 1991 estimate.
- In 2000, an estimated dollar value of nearly $3 billion was attributed to property losses from burglary. The average dollar loss per burglary was $1,462. For residential offenses, the average loss was $1,381 and for nonresidential burglaries, $1,615.
- In 2000, 65.1 percent of burglaries were residential in nature. Burglaries of residences occurred most frequently during daytime hours, 60.7 percent, and burglaries of nonresidences occurred most often at night, 57.7 percent.
- Nearly 7 million larceny-theft offenses are estimated to have been reported to law enforcement agencies during 2000, an increase of 0.2 percent from the 1999 estimate. Larceny-theft comprised 68.4 percent of all the property crimes.
- Thefts of motor vehicle parts, accessories, and contents accounted for the largest segment of larceny-thefts, 34.9 percent. Shoplifting made up 13.8 percent of the larceny-thefts and thefts from buildings, 13.1 percent. The remainder of larceny-thefts was attributable to other types of larceny-theft (pocket-picking, purse-snatching, bicycle thefts, etc.)
- In 2000, the average value of property stolen as a result of larceny-theft was $735. The estimated collective value of all property stolen during larceny-thefts was over
$5.1 billion. Losses over $200 accounted for 38.9 percent of reported larceny-thefts, losses under $50 comprised 37.7 percent, and those between $50 and $200, made up 23.4 percent of the offenses.
Motor Vehicle Theft
- Nearly 1.2 million motor vehicle thefts are estimated to have occurred in 2000, a 1.2-percent increase from the 1999 estimate and the first such increase since 1990. Collectively, the nation’s cities had a 1.4-percent increase in motor vehicle thefts. Motor vehicle theft also increased 2.9 percent in the country’s suburban counties and 1.6 percent in the rural counties.
- During 2000, the value of stolen vehicles was estimated at close to $7.8 billion. The average value of a stolen motor vehicle was $6,682. The recovery rate of stolen motor vehicles, 62.2 percent, was higher than for any other property type.
- Automobiles comprised 74.5 percent of all motor vehicle theft offenses, trucks and buses accounted for 18.7 percent of the vehicle thefts, and the remainder included other type vehicles.
- More than 78,280 arson offenses were reported by law enforcement in 2000, an increase of 0.4 percent from the 1999 figure.
- Among community types, the nation’s cities, collectively, experienced a 0.2-percent decline in reported arson offenses. Cities with populations of 1 million or more inhabitants had the greatest decrease in arson, 7.1 percent. In contrast, cities with populations of 10,000 to 24,999 saw an increase of 6.6 percent for arson offenses and cities of 25,000 to 49,999 inhabitants, an increase of 5.6 percent. The number of arson offenses increased 2.7 percent in the suburban counties. The rural counties had a 0.5-percent decrease in reported offenses.
- Supplemental arson data provided for 68,756 of the 78,280 reported arson offenses in 2000 indicated that 43.8 percent of all arson were structural in nature. Mobile properties were targeted in 31.2 percent of the arson offenses, and other types of property (crops, timber, etc.) accounted for 25.0 percent.
- Among the 30,116 structural arson offenses, residential property comprised 60.3 percent, with 42.2 percent of the structural arson directed at single-family dwellings. Uninhabited or abandoned structural property was targeted in 18.2 percent of the offenses.
- Supplemental arson data indicate that the average monetary value of property damaged due to reported arson in 2000 was $11,042 per incident. The dollar value for damaged structural property averaged $19,479. Mobile property loss averaged $5,803 per incident, and for other property types, the average was $2,706.
- Juveniles were involved in 45.0 percent of arson incidents cleared by law enforcement in 2000.
Law Enforcement Employees
- Law enforcement agencies in the United States employed an average of 2.5 full-time sworn officers for every 1,000 inhabitants during 2000. When full-time civilian employees are included, the rate was 3.5 employees per 1,000 inhabitants.
- The 13,535 city, county, and state police agencies that voluntarily reported personnel data in 2000 collectively employed 654,601 officers and 271,982 civilians and provided law enforcement services to nearly 265 million of the Nation’s approximately 281 million inhabitants.
- By community type, the rate of sworn officers in the nation’s cities collectively was 2.4 officers per 1,000 inhabitants. Both the suburban and rural counties had a rate of 2.6 sworn officers for every 1,000 population.
- In 2000, 70.6 percent of the nation’s law enforcement personnel were sworn officers. Males made up 89.0 percent of the total number of sworn officers.
- Civilians comprised 29.4 percent of the total law enforcement employee force in the United States during 2000. Females accounted for 62.7 percent of all civilian law enforcement personnel.