Rapid DNA

Rapid DNA, or Rapid DNA analysis, is a fully automated process of developing a DNA profile from a mouth swab. This happens in 1-2 hours—without the need for a DNA laboratory or any human intervention and review.

Booking Station Rapid DNA and Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)

The Rapid DNA initiative enrolls a qualified arrestee’s DNA profile in CODIS/NDIS during the booking process. The arrestee is searched against all unsolved crimes within 24 hours. NDIS is the national level of the CODIS system.

The use of DNA—which carries individuals’ unique genetic information—to help solve crimes has become such a fundamental tool for law enforcement that it’s hard to believe this technique of matching unknown profiles to known offenders is a fairly recent phenomenon.

Rapid DNA and DNA Index of Special Concern (DISC)

In addition to searching CODIS, arrestees are searched against the DISC. The DISC contains complete crime scene profiles from unsolved homicides, sexual assaults, kidnappings, and terrorism incidents. DISC profiles can be searched in near real time during the booking process.

A match to a DISC profile will result in an immediate notification to the booking agency, arresting agency, and investigating agency. This technology allows law enforcement to receive investigative leads while an arrestee is still in custody, possibly preventing additional violent crimes.

Rapid DNA Uses


Rapid DNA Uses
Booking StationAccredited Laboratory Law Enforcement Agency

Rapid DNA devices for reference sample mouth swabs

NoYesNo

Qualifying arrestee mouth swabs for CODIS

YesYesNo

National standards and procedures for processing qualifying reference sample mouth swabs for CODIS

YesYesNo

Best practice guidance for non-CODIS use of Rapid DNA

NoYesYes

Approved to process crime scene samples for CODIS

NoNoNo

Booking Station Rapid DNA

After the passage of the Rapid DNA Act of 2017, the FBI worked with the Scientific Working Group for DNA Analysis Methods, the CJIS Advisory Policy Board Rapid DNA Task Force, and other stakeholders to develop:

Establishing Booking Station Rapid DNA

The FBI is working to help law enforcement use Rapid DNA technology in a way that maintains the quality, integrity, and public trust of our national DNA database to combat crime.

Rapid DNA booking device(s) approved for use at NDIS by a law enforcement booking station are:

  • ANDE 6C Series G (effective February 1, 2021)
  • RapidHIT™ ID DNA Booking System v1.0 (effective July 1, 2021), ​v1.1 (effective March 23, 2022)

Booking Station Rapid DNA Requirements and Approvals

NDIS approval of a Rapid DNA Booking Device does not include the approval of your compliance with the CJIS Security Policy, required by state and local information technology networks. A law enforcement booking agency must get this approval before using an NDIS-approved Rapid DNA booking device in a law enforcement booking agency.

For booking station submission of data profiles to be accepted into CODIS, the law enforcement agency must have:

  • Automated fingerprint capture (Live Scan)
  • Criminal history information integration
  • Automated qualifying offense integration

Work with your state CODIS agency to ensure all requirements are met for participation in Booking Station Rapid DNA

Rapid DNA in an Accredited DNA Laboratory

The following Rapid DNA Systems are approved for NDIS use by an accredited forensic DNA laboratory for eligible reference mouth swabs:

DNAscan 6C Rapid DNA Analysis System

ComponentNamePart/Version Number
Rapid DNA InstrumentANDE 6C InstrumentA0120001003
Typing KitFlexPlex27FlexPlex27
CartridgeANDE A-Chip (FlexPlex)A0210001057
System SoftwareANDE System Software2.0.6
Expert System SoftwareANDE Expert System2.0.5

RapidHIT™ID

ComponentNamePart/Version Number
Rapid DNA InstrumentApplied Biosystems™ RapidHIT™ IDA41810
Typing Kit

GlobalFiler™ Express
PCR Amplification Kit

4476609
CartridgeApplied Biosystems™ RapidHIT™ ID ACE GlobalFiler™ ExpressA41831
System SoftwareRapidHIT™ ID System Softwarev1.3, v1.3.1, v1.3.2
Expert System SoftwareRapidHIT™ ID Expert System Softwarev1.0, v1.1

Rapid DNA and Crime Scene Use

Crime Scene Limitations

Mouth swabs are ideal for Rapid DNA devices, as they contain large amounts of fresh DNA from one individual.

However, crime scene samples can present challenges for current Rapid DNA Technology because crime scene samples can vary widely, from age, exposure, and characteristics regarding the amount and quality of DNA. Most importantly, crime scene samples often contain mixtures of DNA from more than one person which requires interpretation by a trained scientist. For these reasons, all crime scene samples must be processed by an accredited forensic DNA Laboratory that follows the FBI Quality Assurance Standards for Forensic DNA Testing Laboratories to be eligible for the CODIS system.

As outlined by leading forensic scientists, technology advancements are needed to bring Rapid DNA into compliance with the FBI Quality Assurance Standards (QAS) for Forensic DNA Testing.

The FBI hopes to expand Rapid DNA’s use in the future. In the meantime, the FBI continues to:

  • Monitor advancements in Rapid DNA technology
  • Work with federal, state, and local agencies to promote responsible use of Rapid DNA
  • Collaborate with industry to help advance this technology

Future Vision for Rapid DNA

When the enhanced Rapid DNA technology becomes available and is thoroughly tested, the FBI envisions Rapid DNA programs will be available for crime scene DNA samples and CODIS use under the accreditation umbrella of a CODIS-participating laboratory. This will provide the quality structure needed to:

  • Increase the number of trained technicians available via remote processing, adding laboratory capacity
  • Address the need for qualified DNA analyst data review for challenging crime scene samples
  • Provide ability to search crime scene Rapid DNA profiles in CODIS
Graphic depicting the future vision for Rapid DNA