DNA Data Requirements
17. What DNA data is accepted at NDIS?
Currently, DNA data generated through PCR Short Tandem Repeat (STR) technology, Y chromosome STR (Y STR) technology, and Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) technology are accepted at NDIS.
Y STR and mtDNA data are only searched with the missing person-related indexes.
The National DNA Index no longer searches DNA data developed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technology.
18. Are there specific data requirements for the DNA records submitted to NDIS?
Yes. There are several requirements for the DNA data submitted to NDIS:
- The DNA data must be generated in accordance with the FBI Director’s Quality Assurance Standards;
- The DNA data must be generated by a laboratory that is accredited by an approved accrediting agency;
- The DNA data must be generated by a laboratory that undergoes an external audit every two years to demonstrate compliance with the FBI Director’s Quality Assurance Standards;
- The DNA data must be one of the categories of data acceptable at NDIS, such as convicted offender, arrestee, detainee, legal, forensic (casework), unidentified human remains, missing person, or a relative of missing person;
- The DNA data must meet minimum CODIS Core Loci requirements for the specimen category;
- The DNA PCR data must be generated using PCR accepted kits; and
- Participating laboratories must have and follow expungement procedures in accordance with federal law.
19. What are the CODIS core loci?
Effective January 1, 2017, the CODIS Core Loci include the following 20 loci:
The Original CODIS Core Loci, required from October 1998 until December 31, 2016, included the following 13 loci:
20. What are the minimum loci requirements for the STR DNA data submitted to NDIS?
The minimum CODIS Core Loci required for submission of DNA data to NDIS vary by specimen category. Generally, the CODIS Core Loci are required for submission of convicted offender, arrestee, detainee, and legal profiles. The CODIS Core Loci and Amelogenin are required for relatives of missing person profiles.
All CODIS Core Loci must be attempted for other specimen categories with the following limited exceptions:
- For forensic DNA profiles, all CODIS Core Loci must be attempted but at least 8 of the original CODIS Core Loci combined with a match rarity of at least one in ten million are required for submission to and searching at NDIS.
- For Missing Person and Unidentified Human Remains, all CODIS Core Loci must be attempted.
21. What are the requirements for submission of mtDNA data to NDIS?
Hypervariable region I (“HV1”; positions 16024-16365) and hypervariable region II (“HV2”; positions 73-340) are required for the submission of mtDNA data to NDIS.
22. Are there additional requirements for forensic (casework) DNA records?
Forensic (casework) DNA samples are considered crime scene evidence. To be classified as a forensic unknown record, the DNA sample must be attributed to the putative perpetrator. Items taken directly from the suspect are considered deduced suspect samples, not forensic unknowns, and are not eligible for upload to NDIS.
23. Are there any additional requirements for missing persons-related DNA records?
For missing person, relatives of missing person, and unidentified human (remains) samples, additional DNA technologies (such as mtDNA, Y STR) should always be considered, as appropriate. For purposes of this discussion, “as appropriate” means if relevant. For example, if the missing person is a female, then Y STR technology would not be relevant. The lack of an additional technology will not render a sample ineligible for entry into CODIS but use of an additional appropriate technology will ensure the most robust search possible.
Additionally, creation of a Pedigree Tree for the missing persons-related DNA record is strongly encouraged. A Pedigree Tree is a graphical representation of the relationship of the missing person with two or more relatives. The more robust Pedigree Trees have at least one relative that is a biological mother, biological father, or biological child of the missing person.
24. What are the expungement requirements?
Laboratories participating in the National DNA Index are required to expunge qualifying profiles from the National Index under the following circumstances:
- For convicted offenders, if the participating laboratory receives a certified copy of a final court order documenting the conviction has been overturned; and
- For arrestees, if the participating laboratory receives a certified copy of a final court order documenting the charge has been dismissed, resulted in an acquittal, or no charges have been brought within the applicable time period.