The FBI created the National Use of Force Data Collection in 2015, in partnership with law enforcement agencies, to provide nationwide statistics on law enforcement use-of-force incidents.
The FBI began collecting this data from law enforcement agencies on January 1, 2019. The most recent data is available on the FBI’s Crime Data Explorer website.
The data collection Includes:
- National-level statistics on law enforcement use-of-force incidents
- Basic information on the circumstances, subjects, and officers involved
The National Use-of-Force Data Collection offers big-picture insights, rather than information on specific incidents. The collection does not assess or report whether officers followed their department’s policy or acted lawfully.
The National Use-of-Force Data Collection publications are available on the FBI’s Crime Data Explorer website at fbi.gov/cde.
Law Enforcement Participation
Participation in the data collection is open to all federal, state, local, and tribal law enforcement and investigative agencies. Participation is voluntary, and the FBI works closely with law enforcement and major law enforcement organizations to encourage agencies to share this important data. The FBI provides a web portal and bulk electronic submission options for agencies to report their information.
Public Release of Data
Public release of use-of-force data from the National Use-of-Force Data Collection depends on the percentage of agencies contributing data and is governed by federal regulations. Regardless of the level of use-of-force data reported, the FBI will periodically release information on agencies that participate in the data collection.
The FBI released initial data when 40% of the total law enforcement officer population was reached. Additional data will be released at 60% and 80% participation levels.
- Date and time
- Total number of officers who applied force
- Number of officers from reporting agency who applied force
- Location type (street, business, home, etc.)
- Did the officer(s) approach the subjects?
- Was it an ambush incident?
- Was a supervisor or senior officer consulted during the incident?
- Reason for initial contact (routine patrol, traffic stop, etc.)
- If the initial contact was due to unlawful activity, what was the most serious offense the individual was suspected of?
- If applicable, the reporting agency will include the National Incident-Based Reporting System record or local incident number of the report detailing criminal incident information on the subject and/or assault or homicide of a law enforcement officer.
- If the incident involved multiple agencies, the reporting agency should provide case numbers for the other agencies’ incident reports
- Age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, and weight
- Injury/death of subject
- Type of force used
- Did the subject direct a threat to the officer or another person?
- Did the subject resist?
- Types of resistance or weapon involvement (threats, active aggression, firearms, etc.)
- Did the subject have a known or apparent impairment, such as mental health condition or being under the influence of drugs or alcohol?
- Was the subject believed to have a weapon?
- Age, sex, race, ethnicity, height, and weight
- Years of service in law enforcement
- Was the officer a full-time employee?
- Was the officer on duty?
- Did the officer discharge a firearm?
- Was the officer injured?
- If so, what was the officer’s injury type?
Key Events in the Development of the National Use-of-Force Data Collection
- June 3, 2015: The FBI’s Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory Policy Board (APB) recommended the FBI develop a new data collection on officer-involved shootings.
- September 18, 2015: Representatives from major law enforcement organizations proposed an expansion to the FBI’s efforts, including uses of force that result in serious bodily injury.
- December 3, 2015: The APB approved a new data collection on law enforcement use of force.
- January 27, 2016: The National Use-of-Force Data Collection Task Force, including law enforcement leaders from across the U.S., met to discuss the collection.
- July 1, 2017: The data collection pilot study began. It concluded on December 31, 2017.
- September 5, 2018: The Office of Management and Budget gave final approval to begin collecting data.
- January 1, 2019: The data collection launched nationwide. All law enforcement agencies are encouraged to participate.
- July 27, 2020: FBI released participation data for National Use-of-Force Data Collection.
- Press Release: FBI Releases 2019 Participation Data for the National Use-of-Force Data Collection
- FBI Releases Summary of Pilot Study on the National Use-Of-Force Data Collection
- Press release: FBI Announces the Official Launch of the National Use-Of-Force Data Collection
- FBI letter requesting participation in the National Use-of-Force Data Collection
- Multi-agency letter in support of the National Use-of-Force Data Collection
- National Use-of-Force Data Collection data documentation (technical specifications, XML IEPD)
- Additional UCR Publications