Hornfeldt, Table 1

TABLE 1.  Summary of Therapeutic, Toxic, and Postmortem Laboratory Findings Following Exposure to Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid and Related Compounds.

THERAPEUTIC DRUG CONCENTRATIONS

Ingested Substance

Ingested Dose

Measured Substance(s)

Source(s)

Concentration**

Reference

GHB

3 g repeated after 4 hrs (26.4-52.4 mg/kg)

<span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Plasma</span></p> </td> <td width="234" colspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn">Two doses resulted in two peaks. Means =62.8  mg/L (SD=27.4) and 91.2 mg/L (SD=25.6),  <i>N</i>=6</p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <h1><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal">Scharf et al. 1998B</span></h1> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p style=""Times New Roman""><font size="3" face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif"><b><font size="2">GHB</font></b></font></p> </td> <td width="123" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">25 mg/kg</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Plasma</span></p> </td> <td width="234" colspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">55 mg/L (range 24-88 mg/L)</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <h1><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal">Ferrara et al. 1993</span></h1> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="123" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">50 mg/kg</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Plasma</span></p> </td> <td width="234" colspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">90 mg/L (range 51-158 mg/L)</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p style=""Times New Roman""><font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="3"><b><font size="2">GHB</font></b></font></p> </td> <td width="123" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">25 mg/kg</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Plasma</span></p> </td> <td width="234" colspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn">Mean = 54 mg/L (SD=19),  N=10</p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <h1><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; font-weight:normal">Ferrara et al. 1992</span></h1> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn" align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:14.0pt;"><font size="-1">TOXIC DRUG CONCENTRATIONS</font></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Ingested Substance</span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Ingested Dose</span></b></p> </td> <td width="89" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Measured Substance(s)</span></b></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Source(s)</span></b></p> </td> <td width="101" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b>Concentration</b></p> </td> <td width="132" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b>Comments</b></p> </td> <td width="90" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b>Reference</b></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">1,4-BD</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">6.3-8.4 g</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">1,4-BD</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">undetectable</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">GCS=3*</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Zvosec et al. 2001</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">415 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">1,4-BD</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">4.5 g</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">1,4-BD</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">undetectable</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">GCS=ll*; labile level of conciousness</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Zvosec et al. 2001</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Serum</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">317 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">716 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">1,4-BD</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">1,4-BD</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">undetectable</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">withdrawal; same patient as above, subsequent event</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Zvosec et al. 2001</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">5,140 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">GHB</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Serum</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">125 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">ethanol a coingestant; GCS=6*</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Louagie et al. 1997</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">GHB</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Serum</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">101 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">1HR postingestion; GCS=3*; 2-month delay in analysis</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Dyer et al. 1994</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">141,000 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">GHB</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Serum</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">0 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">1HR postingestion; GCS=3*; 2-month delay in analysis</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Dyer et al. 1994<b></b></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">1,857 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">GHB</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Serum</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">0 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">1HR postingestion; GCS=3*; 2-month delay in analysis</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Dyer et al. 1994<b></b></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn">Urine</p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn">521 mg/L</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b><span style="font-size:12.0pt;"><font size="2">GHB</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="124" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="89" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="91" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="101" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">1,975 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">THC metabolite also present; severe ataxia</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">Stephens and Baselt 1994</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn" align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:14.0pt;"><font size="-1">POSTMORTEM DRUG CONCENTRATIONS</font></span></b></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Ingested Substance</span></b></p> </td> <td width="123" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Ingested Dose</span></b></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Measured Substance(s)</span></b></p> </td> <td width="90" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><b><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Source(s)</span></b></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b>Concentration</b></p> </td> <td width="132" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b>Comments</b></p> </td> <td width="90" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><b>Reference</b></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="2">1,4-BD</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">26 g</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">(estimated to be 320 mg/kg)</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn" align="center" style="text-align: center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">1,4-BD</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Heart Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">78 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> <td width="90" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Martin and Duer 2001</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">870 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Heart Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">416 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">1810 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="2">1,4-BD</font></span></b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""></span></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">5.4–10.8 g</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">(estimated to be 95–189 mg/kg)</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">1,4-BD</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">220 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> <td width="90" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Zvosec et al. 2001</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">1756 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn" align="center" style="text-align: center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">837 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">1161 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="2">1,4-BD</font></span></b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""></span></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">20 g</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">(estimated to be 300 mg/kg)</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">1,4-BD</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">845 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> <td width="90" rowspan="3" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">McCutcheon et al. 2000</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">432 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">5430 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="8" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="2">1,4-BD</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="8" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">1,4-BD</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">7.6 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="8" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> <td width="90" rowspan="8" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Kraner et al. 2000</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">146 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Bile</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">0 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Vitreous H.</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">12.3 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">280 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">6,171 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Bile</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">218 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Vitreous H.</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">324 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p style=""Times New Roman""><font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="+1"><b><font size="2">GHB</font></b></font></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">140 mcg/g</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">ethanol, fenfluramine &amp; norfenfluramine also present</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Timby et al. 2000</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">620 mcg/g</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p style=""Times New Roman""><font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="3"><b><font size="2">GHB</font></b></font></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">170 mcg/g</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="-1">ethanol &amp; nordazepam  also present</font></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Timby et al. 2000</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">300 mcg/g</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p style=""Times New Roman""><font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="3"><b><font size="2">GHB</font></b></font></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Heart Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">66 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">second case may have also involved ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone </span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Marinetti et al. 2000</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">1260 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="85" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p style=""Times New Roman""><font size="+1" face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif"><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="3"><b><font size="2">GHB</font></b></font></span></font></p> </td> <td width="123" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Heart Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">15 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">150 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="84" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="2">GHB</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="125" colspan="2" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Unknown</span></p> </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">11.5 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">heroin was a co-ingestant: morphine and 6-monoacetyl-morphine also present</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="4" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Ferrara et al. 1995</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Urine</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">258.3 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Bile</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">57.0 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Vitreous H.</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">84.3 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="713" colspan="10" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="84" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="2">NONE</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="125" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn" align="center" style="text-align: center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood, N=20</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn" align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">0-168 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">mean 25 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><font face="Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif" size="-1">Fieler et al.  1998</font></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;"Times New Roman"">Urine, N=8</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">0 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="84" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><b><span style="font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman""><font size="2">NONE</font></span></b></p> </td> <td width="125" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal">&nbsp; </td> <td width="90" colspan="2" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">GHB</span></p> </td> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">Blood, N=13</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">0-197 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;">mean 57 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="90" rowspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">Elliot 2001</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="90" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p class="MsoEnvelopeReturn"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;"Times New Roman"">Urine, N=13</span></p> </td> <td width="102" colspan="2" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p align="right" style="text-align:right"><span style="font-size:9.0pt;font-family:Arial; "Times New Roman"">0-217 mg/L</span></p> </td> <td width="132" valign="top" class="Normal"> <p><span style="font-size:9.0pt; font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">mean 56 mg/L</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr height="0"> <td width="82" class="Normal"></td> <td width="1" class="Normal"></td> <td width="101" class="Normal"></td> <td width="0" class="Normal"></td> <td width="98" class="Normal"></td> <td width="84" class="Normal"></td> <td width="0" class="Normal"></td> <td width="105" class="Normal"></td> <td width="118" class="Normal"></td> <td width="87" class="Normal"></td> </tr> </table> <p>*   Glascow Coma Scale</p> <p><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">** Those laboratory values reported as </span><span>m</span><span style="font-size:10.0pt;font-family:Arial;"Times New Roman"">g/mL converted to mg/L for consistency.</span><span>  </span></p>